November 9 marks the 30th anniversary of the collapse of the most famous separation wall in the history of mankind.
After World War II and the defeat of the Nazis, East Berlin saw the establishment of the GDR. While the Federal Republic of Germany was established in the western part of the city.
The 30 year anniversary of the demolition
On the anniversary of the demolition of the Berlin Wall, euKaaz highlights the chronology of the separation wall, and the stations it has gone through over the years.
The Berlin Wall in the 1940’s
To understand the events that led to the construction of the wall it is necessary to return to February 1945. When the Allies triumphed in World War II, led by the United States, the Yalta conference was organized. This meeting led to Germany’s division into four separate areas, controlled by the Allies.
On May 23, 1949, the United States, Britain, and France established the Federal Republic of Germany. This territory was later known as West Germany. For its part, the Soviet Union responded by establishing the “GDR” on October 7, 1949, later known as “East Germany.”
Closed borders with the Soviet Union
In April 1952, the Soviet Union decided to close the border between East Berlin and its western counterpart. However, these measures were unsuccessful. Millions fled East Berlin towards the western part of the city, since the border was closed until 1961.
On August 12, 1961, East Germany President Walter Albrecht ordered the construction of the wall between East- and West Berlin. This made it impossible for Berliners to pass from one area to another without a permit.
Indeed, the wall was built along 155 km, 43 km. Which cut Berlin from north to south. While 122 km west of Berlin was isolated from the rest of the German Democratic Republic.
Most of the wall was made of reinforced concrete, with a height of more than 3 meters. Which was fortified with observation posts, barbed wire and strong lighting to prevent infiltration. One of the most popular security checkpoints along the fence is the Charlie Point.
Leaders demanded demolition
Over the years, leaders and heads of state have demanded the demolition of the wall, most notably former US President John F. Kennedy, who delivered a speech in front of the Berlin Wall.
In August 1989, Bulgaria announced the reopening of its border with Austria. As a result more than 13,000 “tourists” from East Germany went to Austria by September of the same year.
The events continued in September, and increased signs of “near collapse”. As mass demonstrations against the government began in East Germany. Which led to the resignation of Eastern President Erik Honecker in October. And gave hope that this wall of separation, especially since Honecker The strongest defenders.
In November 1989, tens of thousands of East Germans crossed the border into West Berlin, passing guards and customs officers.
The Berlin Wall in the past 30 years
In August 1990, Helmut Kohl was elected chancellor of a united Germany as we now know it, with Berlin as its capital.
In 2018 over 1.1 million people visited the Berlin Wall. According to the Berlin Wall Foundation this is a new record.